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About Parshotam Associates


A ‘Non-resident Indian’ (NRI) is a person resident outside India who is a citizen of India.

A ‘Person of Indian Origin (PIO)’ is a person resident outside India who is a citizen of any country other than Bangladesh or Pakistan or such other country as may be specified by the Central Government, satisfying the following conditions:

  • a. Who was a citizen of India by virtue of the Constitution of India or the Citizenship Act, 1955 (57 of 1955); or
  • b. Who belonged to a territory that became part of India after the 15th day of August, 1947; or
  • c. Who is a child or a grandchild or a great grandchild of a citizen of India or of a person referred to in clause (a) or (b); or
  • d. Who is a spouse of foreign origin of a citizen of India or spouse of foreign origin of a person referred to in clause (a) or (b) or (c)

A PIO will include an ‘Overseas Citizen of India’ cardholder within the meaning of Section 7(A) of the Citizenship Act, 1955. Such an OCI Card holder should also be a person resident outside India.

Borrowings from overseas have to be in compliance with the applicable ECB guidelines / provisions contained in the Foreign Exchange Management (Borrowing and Lending in Foreign Exchange) Regulations, 2018 issued vide Notification No. FEMA 3 (R)/2018-RB dated December 17, 2018, as amended from time to time.

Master Direction No. 5 on ‘External Commercial Borrowings, Trade Credits and Structured Obligations dated March 26, 2019 may be referred to for guidance on the extant framework on ECB and TC. ECBs and TCs raised under the prior frameworks should continue to be in compliance with the corresponding guidelines applicable at the time of availing the ECBs and TCs.

Contravention is a breach of the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999 and rules/ regulations/ notification/ orders/ directions/ circulars issued there under. Compounding refers to the process of voluntarily admitting the contravention, pleading guilty and seeking redressal. The Reserve Bank is empowered to compound any contraventions as defined under section 13 of FEMA, 1999 except the contravention under section 3(a) ibid, for a specified sum after offering an opportunity of personal hearing to the contravener. It is a voluntary process in which an individual or a corporate seeks compounding of an admitted contravention. It provides comfort to any person who contravenes any provisions of FEMA, 1999 [except section 3(a) of the Act] by minimizing transaction costs. Willful, malafide and fraudulent transactions are, however, viewed seriously, which will not be compounded by the Reserve Bank. Further, in terms of the proviso to rule 8 (2) of Foreign Exchange (Compounding Proceedings) Rules, 2000 inserted vide GOI notification dated February 20, 2017, if the Enforcement Directorate is of the view that the compounding proceeding relates to a serious contravention suspected of money laundering, terror financing or affecting sovereignty and integrity of the nation, such cases will not be compounded by the Reserve Bank.

Any person who contravenes any provision of the FEMA, 1999 [except section 3(a)] or contravenes any rule, regulation, notification, direction or order issued in exercise of the powers under this Act or contravenes any condition subject to which an authorization is issued by the Reserve Bank, can apply for compounding to the Reserve Bank. Applications seeking compounding of contraventions under section 3(a) of FEMA, 1999 may be submitted to the Directorate of Enforcement.

When a person is made aware of the contravention of the provisions of FEMA, 1999 by the Reserve Bank or any other statutory authority or the auditors or by any other means, she/he may apply for compounding. One can also make an application for compounding, suo moto, on becoming aware of the contravention

The reporting and other form requirements listed in the FED Master Direction No. 18/2015-16 titled ‘Master Direction – Reporting under Foreign Exchange Management Act,1999’ dated January 01, 2016 (Updated as on January 24, 2018) can be used for applying for compounding. The above Master Direction can be downloaded from the Reserve Bank’s website by clicking on the link and the documents as applicable therein should be submitted along with the application.

Under the Liberalised Remittance Scheme, all resident individuals, including minors, are allowed to freely remit up to USD 2,50,000 per financial year (April – March) for any permissible current or capital account transaction or a combination of both. Further, resident individuals can avail of foreign exchange facility for the purposes mentioned in Para 1 of Schedule III of FEM (CAT) Amendment Rules 2015, dated May 26, 2015, within the limit of USD 2,50,000 only.

The Scheme was introduced on February 4, 2004, with a limit of USD 25,000. The LRS limit has been revised in stages consistent with prevailing macro and micro economic conditions.

In case of remitter being a minor, the LRS declaration form must be countersigned by the minor’s natural guardian. The Scheme is not available to corporates, partnership firms, HUF, Trusts etc.

The remittance facility under the Scheme is not available for the following:

  • (i). Remittance for any purpose specifically prohibited under Schedule-I (like purchase of lottery tickets/sweep stakes, proscribed magazines, etc.) or any item restricted under Schedule II of Foreign Exchange Management (Current Account Transactions) Rules, 2000.
  • (ii). Remittance from India for margins or margin calls to overseas exchanges / overseas counterparty.
  • (iii). Remittances for purchase of FCCBs issued by Indian companies in the overseas secondary market.
  • (iv). Remittance for trading in foreign exchange abroad.
  • (v). Capital account remittances, directly or indirectly, to countries identified by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) as “non- cooperative countries and territories”, from time to time.
  • (vi). Remittances directly or indirectly to those individuals and entities identified as posing significant risk of committing acts of terrorism as advised separately by the Reserve Bank to the banks.